Auditing Internal Control – tryspring

By | July 30, 2019

Auditing – Internal Control

In this chapter, we will discuss how Internal Control works in
Auditing. Internal Control system is one of the basic and
essential factors for efficient and effective management. It
covers the whole management system of an organization, both
financial or non-financial. Internal control system is helpful
for the management and also the Auditor in achieving goals and
targets effectively. Therefore, internal control system covers a
number of checks and control to ensure efficient and economic

There are two types of controls — Financial Control and
Administrative Control. Reliability of financial records and
safeguarding of assets is a part of financial control. We will
now understand in detail what Internal Control System.

What is Internal Control

Internal Control comprises of the plan of the organization and
all the co-ordinate methods and measures adopted within a
business to safeguard its assets, check the accuracy and
reliability of its accounting data to promote operational
efficiency and to encourage adherence to prescribed managerial

Purpose of Internal Control

Let us now understand the purpose of Internal Control from
different points of view.

From Auditor’s Point of View

It is very important from the Auditor’s point of view to study
and evaluate the system of internal control. To obtain an
adequate understanding of the internal control system, that must
be tested. The Auditor has to determine whether audit is
possible, if yes, then he should determine the scope of audit.

From Client’s Point of View

  • Internal control system provides reliable and accurate data
    that is necessary for decision making and to run business
    activity efficiently.

  • Adequate internal control system safeguard business assets,
    in absence of it, assets of the company may be stolen,
    misused or accidentally destroyed.

  • Internal control system within organization is necessary to
    discourage and stop non performing business activities and to
    protect business from wastage is all aspects of the business.

  • Internal control system insures that rules and procedures are
    to be followed by business personnel.

Characteristics of Internal Control

Following are the main characteristics of Internal Control
usually abbreviated as CROSSASIA −

  • Competent and trustworthy personnel
  • Records, Financial and other Organization plan
  • Organizational plans
  • Segregation of duties
  • Supervision
  • Authorization
  • Sound practice
  • Internal Audit
  • Arithmetic and accounting controls

Limitations of Internal Control

Following are the inherent limitations of Internal Control −

  • Management decision to choose cost effective control system
    may reduce the effectiveness of internal control system.

  • There are chances of misuse by a person of authority who is
    operating on internal control system.

  • Objectives of internal control systems may be defeated by
    manipulation of management.

  • Since internal control system is involved in routine
    transactions, irregular transactions may be overlooked.

  • Changes in conditions may affect the effectiveness of
    internal control system.

Scope of Internal Control

Following are the main areas which are generally covered by a
good internal control system −

  • Cash − Here, internal control is applied over payments
    and receipts of an organization. This is to safeguard from
    misappropriation of cash.

  • Control over Sale and Purchase − With proper and
    efficient control system for transactions regarding purchase
    and sale of material, handling of material and accounting for
    the same is must.

  • Financial Control − It deals with the efficient system
    of accounting, recording and supervision.

  • Employee’s Remuneration − Internal control system is
    applied to preparation and maintenance of records of
    employees and the payment methods also. It is also necessary
    to safeguard against misappropriation of cash.

  • Capital Expenditure − Internal control system ensures
    the proper sanction of capital expenditure and also the use
    of it for the purpose intended.

  • Inventory Control − It covers the proper handling of
    inventory, minimization of slow moving items or dead stock,
    proper valuation of stock, recording of it, etc.

  • Control over Investments − internal control system is
    applied to the proper recording of transactions be it
    purchases, additions, sale or redemption, income on
    investments, profit or loss on investment.

Internal Control and Auditor

An Auditor should ensure that certain rules and procedures are
followed by the business unit he is working on, in spite of the
fact that a sound system of internal control is as sole
responsibility of the management. The Auditor can simply guide or
help the management if he is asked to do so, because he has no
authority to prescribe such rules and procedures. The degree of
reliance on the system depends upon the effectiveness of internal
control system; therefore, the Auditor should review and evaluate
the internal control system of an organization to prepare his
audit Program.

Review of Internal Control System

Internal control system should be reviewed by the Auditor before
star audit as described below −

  • Reviewing the system of accounting entries, whether recorded
    as per accounting standard or not.

  • To frame audit program according to present circumstances.

  • Frauds, errors and mistakes are likely to be located or not.

  • To review existence of internal audit program and to check
    the efficiency of internal control system.

  • To review the reliability of reports, records and
    certificates as presented by the management.

  • To check if there is any possibility of improvement in
    existing internal control system.

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